“Disturbing the Slumbering Hornet’s Nest:” The Attack on the Stockade Redan at Vicksburg

On May 22, 1863, the Stockade Redan was the scene of some of the bloodiest fighting of the entire Vicksburg campaign. Sergeant George Powell Clark, a member of the “Harper Reserves,” Company C, 36th Mississippi Infantry, was at the redan that day, and years later he wrote a detailed account of what he witnessed:

There was a continual sharp shooting, skirmishing, and artillery firing kept up until about 10 a.m. on the 22nd of May, at which time we could plainly see that another attack would be made on our works. For the space of perhaps a half hour there was complete silence all along both lines. Not a shot was heard, not a man was seen in our front during the short space and the experienced soldier knew that it was the calm that precedes the storm.

Soon blue columns were seen advancing four lines deep in front of Fort Hill. We knew from all the indications that this was going to be a desperate assault, and we nerved ourselves for the shock. One peculiar feature of this advance was that a large number of men came in front bearing rails on their shoulders. This will be explained in its proper place. As on the 19th they halted just behind the hill for a short rest, before disturbing the slumbering hornet’s nest that lay behind our frowning line of earthworks.

Everything was as still as death, except the wild tumultuous beating of thousands of hearts, as with mingled feelings of dread and awe, we await the shock of the coming conflict with fingers on the triggers of our muskets, ready to send the hurtling messengers of death into the devoted band. We had not long to wait, for soon we heard an officer, with the voice of Stentor giving the word ‘forward.’ Their scurried ranks came pouring over the hill and rushed right on our works. A withering fire of musketry, grape, canister and shells greeted them as they came in sight, and men fell like grass before the reaper, lying on the ground thick as the ‘autumnal leaves that strew the brooks in Vallombrosa.’

Here, now, the eyewitness could have seen war in all its awful sublimity and grandeur. Many years have elapsed since that stormy day; for these lines are penned on the 18th day of May, 1897, liking only four days on being 34 years since the one of which I am writing, but all those scenes come before my imagination as if it had only been yesterday.

But to return, what of the men bearing the rail? As I have said they were in front and of course received the first shock from the tempest of shot and shell that was hurled into their ranks. It seemed that the pitiless storm swept away half of their ranks at the first fire. But others would gather up and bear them on, only to share the same fate. Their battle flags were often seen to go down, but in a moment was soon seen fluttering in the breeze, as other hands bore them on toward the flaming crest of the hill in their front. Their lines wavered not, though hundreds fell in front of Fort Hill, and the rail bearers reached the ditch in front of the fort, bridged it, crossed over to the fort and planted their colors on our breastworks in several places.

Vicksburg Assault
Union soldiers assaulting the Vicksburg Defenses

Then began a fierce struggle for the possession of the fort. A regiment of Missourians was in reserve just in rear of the position occupied by our regiment, and when the stars and stripes were planted upon our works and the fierce struggle going on, their officers could not hold them back, but they came rushing without orders to our assistance. The Federals seeing this reinforcement coming to our aid, wavered and were completely repulsed. Their dead and wounded covered the ground over which they had so gallantly moved to the attack.

(Reminiscence and Anecdotes of the War for Southern Independence by George Powell Clarke, pages 101 – 102)

The violence done at the Stockade Redan forever marked that land as a place of death and destruction. For decades after the battle the citizens of Vicksburg were finding lead and iron reminders of the May 22nd assault on the fort. I found the following article about this very subject in a 1904 Vicksburg newspaper:



Yesterday morning while the forces under Mr. W.A. Claver were at work, grading the portion of the cemetery, or as known to the old soldiers, the grave yard road, they unearthed a quantity of siege relics. They were found at the north side of the cross road facing the stockade redan, and somewhat to the east of Confederate avenue, and Capt. Rigby has no doubt that they are Union relics.

Stockade Redan 1
View of the Stockade Redan taken in the late 19th or early 20th Century. (Series 573, Vicksburg National Military Park Photographs, Mississippi Department of Archives and History)

Among the other things found in the bank were one 12 pounder shrapnel, one 12 pounder solid shot, one conical shell 20 pounder solid shot, one old spade minus handle, a cartridge box plate, several pieces of cast iron pipe, a set of cartridge box tins, a quantity of minie balls, and what appeared to be a quantity of human bones.

Vicksburg Relics 1
Scene from the Vicksburg National Military Park, late 19th or early 20th Century – note the man kneeling has several artillery projectiles at his feet. (Series 573, Vicksburg National Military Park Photographs, Mississippi Department of Archives and History)

Just at about that point Capt. Rigby states that the two contending lines were nearer together than almost any other point, and the casualties were the heaviest. There were mines and counter mines and no doubt the relics found yesterday were covered during an explosion.

Captain William T. Rigby served in Company B, 24th Iowa Infantry during the siege of Vicksburg. After the war he served as a commissioner and later chairman of the Vicksburg National Military Park (National Park Service)

It is probable when the forces begin the work of restoring the batteries and mounting guns many more of the like will be found.

The Vicksburg Herald, May 28, 1904

Today marks the 155th anniversary of the assault on the Stockade Redan, but the deeds of valor by the soldiers both blue and gray are still remembered so many years later. It is only fitting that we do this, as these brave men earned the right to be remembered.


“A Martyr to the cause:” The death of Captain Hugh Rees Vaughan

Today is Confederate Memorial Day, and I want to spotlight one Mississippi soldier who gave his life during the Civil War. This morning I was looking through some photocopies I had made from John L. Power’s scrapbook, which is in the collections of the Mississippi Department of Archives and History. On one page was a small column headlined with just one word – “OBITUARY:”

Obituary of Hugh Rees Vaughan, 18th Mississippi Infantry (John L. Power Scrapbook, MDAH)

Hugh Rees Vaughan was born on June 10, 1839, in South Carolina; his family moved to Yazoo County, Mississippi, in 1835. His father, Henry Vaughan, was a wealthy planter in Yazoo County; in 1850 he valued his real estate at $55,000. To work this land Vaughan used a force of 293 slaves. An influential man in his community, Henry Vaughan was elected to represent Yazoo County in the Mississippi Secession Convention. (1850 U.S. Census, Yazoo County, page 500b, and “The Mississippi Secession Convention” by Timothy B. Smith.)

Hugh Rees Vaughan enlisted in the “Benton Rifle Company,” Company B, 18th Mississippi Infantry, as 2nd sergeant on April 27, 1861. Promoted to Captain of the Benton Rifles on April 26, 1862, he extended his 12 month enlistment two days later by reenlisting for “the war.” Wounded at the battle of Sharpsburg, Maryland, on September 17, 1862, he was absent on furlough until the spring of 1863. That summer Vaughan was wounded at the battle of Gettysburg on July 2, 1863, when the 18th Mississippi took part in the assault on the Peach Orchard. After his second wound Henry Vaughan went on furlough in South Carolina, probably recuperating with relatives, as his father was a native of the Palmetto State. Unfortunately the young captain succumbed to his injuries, and his service record noted that he died on March 18, 1864. (Compiled Service Record of Hugh R. Vaughan, 18th Mississippi Infantry, accessed on Fold3.com, April 30, 2018).

Hugh R. Vaughan Tombstone 2
Grave of Captain Hugh R. Vaughan (Findagrave.com)

Captain Hugh R. Vaughan is buried in the Church of the Holy Cross Cemetery in Stateburg, South Carolina. He has a well-marked grave in a well tended cemetery beside a beautiful antebellum church; it’s a fitting resting place for a man who gave his life in defense of his home and family.

Church of the Holy Cross in Stateburg, South Carolina (Wikipedia)

I will close this story with part of a poem written by Ellen Hebron of Vicksburg, Mississippi. She had a brother in the 18th Mississippi who died early in the war, and she wrote these lines as a tribute to him:

He ‘is not dead, but sleepeth,’

The boy that ‘wore the grey,’

With manhood’s pride and boyhood’s grace,

On that bright summer’s day.

His dark-blue eyes were radiant

With a patriotic glow,

And his beardless chin was dimpled

With a smile ‘twixt joy and woe;

While from his fair young forehead

The silken locks were thrown,

With a careless ease, and a winning mien

No painter’s art hart known.

He ‘is not dead, but sleepeth,’

The boy that pined away,

On a couch of pain afar from home,

On that bright summer’s day.

And the words of love he uttered

To a mother’s aching heart,

In the household band of a sunny land,

Are now a treasured part.

He loved his native country,

He loved his Saviour too;

And softly to His bosom

This youthful son He drew.

Virginia’s noble daughters!

We pray you guard the spot

Where sleeps our darling brother;

You will not be forgot.

For in the gentle rustle

Of the wind that passeth by,

You will hear a soft and tender wail –

His tribute from the sky!

In Memory of Our Brother, J.E.,” published in Songs From the South by Ellen Hebron.

Henry Wyatt

The most chronically underrepresented group in first person accounts of the Civil War are without a doubt those of African Americans. Their voices are often silent, or their stories have to be told by others, simply because of the dearth of letters, diaries, and reminiscences of black soldiers and slaves. Thus I was very excited to find the following letter published in a Greenville newspaper in 1890:

Fort Adams, Miss., April 25, 1890

Mr. J.S. McNeily, Greenville:

Dear Sir – I write to you to ascertain if yourself and Mr. W.K. Gildart and any of Company

The City of Vicksburg held a “Blue and Gray” Reunion from May 25 –  30, 1890. (Vicksburg Commercial Herald, May 27, 1890)

E, 21st Mississippi Regiment expect to attend the reunion of the Confederate soldiers at Vicksburg on the 25th to the 30th of May, as I would like to see and meet with all my friends, as we may never meet again. Please be sure and answer me at once, as I don’t wish to go unless I can meet you all. I will be more than proud to meet you, especially on account of your favors in the past, which I will never forget.

I am still a true and tried Democrat and am still with my party and the people. I wish to hear from you in regard to the meeting. I have nothing more to write. Only write soon.

I remain your obedient servant,

Henry Wyatt, Col’d

Henry was a popular member of the regimental servants squad. He will especially remembered by a pathetic circumstance at the death of his master, Orderly Sergeant Beech of Company E, a mere boy but a brave and tried soldier. Killed at the battle of Cedar Creek, the news of his death brought Henry to the front, regardless of the dangers of which he ordinarily had a ludicrously lively sense. After a brief indulgence in lamentations he set about burying the corpse, but was interrupted by the renewal of battle and rout of the Confederates. Under hot fire he bore the remains on his shoulders along with the retreat, only relinquishing his sad task to avoid capture.

(The Weekly Democrat-Times, Greenville, Mississippi, May 10, 1890)

Henry Wyatt, was not a soldier; he was a slave, bound to serve his master, William H. Beach, a member of the “Hurricane Rifles,” Company E, 21st Mississippi Infantry. Beach had enlisted in the 21st Mississippi on June 6, 1861, as a private, and he must have shown some talent as a soldier, for he was promoted to 4th corporal on January 1, 1863, and to 1st sergeant on August 1, 1863. This was a very rapid rise in rank for a boy who was only 17 at the time he enlisted. William H. Beach received a minor wound at the battle of Chickamauga, on September 20, 1863; he recovered from his injury only to be killed in action at the battle of Cedar Creek, October 19, 1864, leading to the recovery of his body by his slave Henry Wyatt.

I started looking for background information on Henry Wyatt, and the first thing I found on him was a listing in the 1870 United States Census for Wilkinson County, Mississippi. He was listed as a “farm laborer” along with his wife Anna, and children Malinda, Monroe and Robena. I was unable to find Wyatt in the 1880 census, but I did find him in the 1890 Veteran’s Schedules – it was only supposed to record Union veterans, but some former Confederate soldiers and servants were enumerated as well, and he was one of them.

Henry Wyatt 1890 Veteran's Census
Henry Wyatt’s listing on the 1890 Veteran’s Census (Accessed on Ancestry.Com)

I was curious to know if  Henry Wyatt attended the 1890 reunion at Vicksburg. I did some looking and was rewarded with an article in a local newspaper published under the title, “A Veteran’s Arrival.”

Henry Wyatt, colored, attached during the late war to the 21st Mississippi Regiment and

Medal 1
Medal Commemorating the 1890 Blue – Gray Reunion in Vicksburg (www.civilwarbadges.com)

who was noted throughout the war for going wherever the regiment did, arrived yesterday on the steamer Laura Lee from Fort Adams, to attend the reunion and was received as an honored guest and at once provided with quarters. He went out with the regiment and returned with it at the close of hostilities, being faithful to the end, as he has been indeed ever since. He now holds a position of trust at the Fort Adams landing acting as night watchman and clerk, handling and receiving freight, etc. His only object in coming, as he expressed it is “to meet the boys.”

He will be remembered by all survivors of the gallant Twenty-First and especially by the members of Company E, for his gallant attempt to recover the body of his young master, in the midst of a heavy fire from the enemy.

(The Daily Commercial Herald, Vicksburg, Mississippi, May 24, 1890)

Wyatt apparently made regular appearances on the reunion circuit, as I found this article in an 1895 Jackson newspaper:

There is present in attendance on the Reunion of the Veterans a colored man from Wilkinson county, Henry Wyatt, who has a record to be proud of. He was a servant in the Twenty-First Regiment, and at the battle of Cedar Creek he went into the thickest of the fight and bore off the body of his young master, who was killed. Henry has been a staunch Democrat since the war and is still an enthusiastic ex-Reb. All honor to such colored men. (The Clarion-Ledger, January 22, 1895) This same issue of the paper listed the veterans attending the Jackson reunion – among those mentioned was ‘Henry Wyatt, (col.)‘ an ‘honorary member‘ of Woodville Camp Number 48 of the United Confederate Veterans.

Henry Wyatt passed away in 1907, and the newspaper carried a lengthy obituary for him:

A Worthy Negro Goes to His Reward.

Col. Matt Johnson, who served his full term as a Confederate soldier, and who is a prominent citizen of Natchez, states that ‘Henry Wyatt, a good old Confederate negro was buried today (Friday) and is gone to where the good negroes go. In a letter from Capt. J.S. McNeily of the Vicksburg Herald, he speaks of old Henry as an honest, worthy and brave man. His owner was my friend and messmate during the war. Henry cooked for us until late in the war when his master was killed on the battlefield.

Henry went forward between the line of battle, shouldered his master and carried him to the rear. In so doing he was severely wounded in both hands, one shot entirely off. He has been receiving a Confederate pension of which he was worthy. He wore the cross of honor of Confederate Veterans and other insignias of worthy conduct. Since the war for the last twenty-six years, old Henry has been landing-keeper at Fort Adams and performed his duty to the satisfaction of the owners and all river men who knew him and speak of him in the highest praise of many acts of honesty and bravery.

Capt. McNeily of Vicksburg, in writing to me about him, says: ‘I will stand for anything that this good man needs. It is with great pleasure to tell you and the public of the life and deeds of this good old negro for there are not many left of his character.’ – Natchez Democrat

That old darky was what he was because of his training by white people, and for his white folks he would have suffered any kind of torture. Here in Yazoo there are still some of the ‘old guard,’ of blacks, but they are fast passing away. Would not training by whites have some influence on the younger generation, and be better for them  and the country than cutting them off entirely, leaving them to be trained by their own superstitious race?

(The Yazoo Herald, Yazoo City, Mississippi, April 19, 1907)

There was a place for men like Henry Wyatt at Confederate reunions, as long as they fit into the very narrow confines of the Lost Cause narrative: faithful slaves that willingly served their masters in time of war. To all outward appearances, Wyatt cheerfully stayed within the boundaries set for him by white society, but he did have a powerful financial reason for doing so. Henry Wyatt began receiving a Confederate servant’s pension from the state of Mississippi in March 1894, and to continue receiving this allotment he had to be very careful about what he said and did.


Pension 1
August 1900 Confederate Servant’s Pension Application of Henry Wyatt (Accessed on Familysearchorg)

Without additional information, such as letters, diaries or interviews, it’s hard to say with any certainty what Wyatt’s true feelings about the war and his place in it were. I will keep a sharp eye out, and perhaps someday I will find some additional evidence regarding Henry Wyatt’s thoughts on the Civil War.

“Brothers in the Confederate Cause:” A Story of Two Comrades in Arms

I have been a Civil War collector for as long as I can remember – I bought my first relic,

U.S. General Service Button Purchased by the Author in the 1970’s. (Author’s Photo)

a dug U.S. General service button, in the 1970’s when I was about 10 years old. I paid fifty cents for that button, and I still have it proudly displayed among my many Civil War artifacts.

Some 40-odd years after buying that button I am still adding to my collection, and this article concerns one of my latest acquisitions – a small pamphlet written by Confederate soldier C.W. Shipp of Water Valley, Mississippi.

I purchased the Shipp pamphlet from the same place I get most of my relics these days – on Ebay. It didn’t cost much; I think I paid about 10 dollars for the document, planning at the time to use it in an article for the blog. It has taken me a couple of years to get around to it, but I am finally writing the article – I hope you like it!

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The pamphlet was written by Cleophas W. Shipp of Water Valley, Mississippi, and after looking up his service record on Fold3.com, I found the document had the basic information of his Civil War service correct. Shipp enlisted in September 1861 as 3rd Sergeant of the “Dave Rogers Rifles,” Company G, 1st Mississippi Infantry. He was captured at Fort Donelson in February 1862, and sent to Camp Morton, Indiana. After being exchanged, Shipp returned to his regiment, only to be captured again at Port Hudson, Louisiana, when the garrison surrendered in July 1863. Returning to his unit in the fall of 1863, Shipp served until November 30, 1864, when he was wounded in the foot during the Battle of Franklin, Tennessee, and sent to a local hospital. Captured by Federal forces in December 1864, Shipp was sent to Camp Chase, Ohio, where he remained until taking the Oath of Allegiance to the United States on June 13, 1865. (C.W. Shipp Compiled Service Record, Accessed on Fold3.com)

Shipp’s pamphlet stated that he was paralyzed, but after examining his service record, it didn’t appear that his disability was related to any of his Civil War injuries. I did some research through Newspapers.com, and was able to find some answers in a 1902 newspaper article:



An old soldier, C.W. Shipp of Water Valley, Miss., sends me his photo as he lies in his bed, where he has been for twenty-two years, paralyzed from wounds received at the battle of Franklin. He enlisted in Company G, First Mississippi Infantry; was in fights at Fort Donaldson and Fort [Port] Hudson and followed Hood from Atlanta to Tennessee; was wounded at battle of Franklin and taken prisoner. He has written a poem and dedicated it to his comrades. His home has an old debt of $400 hanging over it, and will be sold before long. How many of the veterans who are going to Dallas will send him a dollar or a half to save his old home? He will send each one [of] his picture[s] and a copy of his poem.

The above call for aid was clipped from Bill Arp’ letter in the Atlanta Constitution of April

Bill Arp
C.W. Shipp wrote to Bill Arp, syndicated columnist with the Atlanta Constitution; Simmons saw Arp’s article, and sent a copy to the Clarion-Ledger. (Photo from http://www.georgiaencyclopeidia.org

21. It was handed us by R.O. Simmons of Lebanon, Miss., who says he will give fifty cents toward saving the old veteran’s home to him. Mr. Simmons is an old veteran himself having served during the war in the 25th Georgia regiment, Company A, Longstreet’s corps, Kershaw[‘s] division, Walthall’s brigade. He is very much in earnest about helping Mr. Shipp and makes the request that other state papers publish the extract above. (Clarion-Ledger, May 14, 1902)

The Clarion-Ledger article was interesting, but I felt it was incorrect in one regard; it stated that Shipp’s paralysis was the result of his wound from the battle of Franklin. The service record of Shipp stated that his wound was only a “simple flesh wound of left foot, outer surface.” This does not sound like the kind of injury that would leave a man permanently crippled.

I did some additional research, and found an article in Confederate Veteran Magazine that gives, I believe, a much more accurate account of how Shipp came by his injury:

Comrade C.W. Shipp, of Mississippi, writes that his State is doing well by its crippled Confederates. The State gives $150,000 a year to them. Mr. Shipp was thrown from a horse March 6, 1880, and his spine broken and his entire body paralyzed, and his lower extremities completely paralyzed, which has confined him to his bed for more than sixteen years.” (Confederate Veteran Magazine, Volume 8, Number 8, August 1900)

The timing of Shipp’s accident seems correct – I looked him up in the 1880 U.S. Census for Lafayette County, and found him listed as a 37 year old farmer. Also under the category “Sick” was written one word: “Paralysis.” For a relatively young man with a large family to support, Shipp’s injury must have had a huge impact on the family finances. In addition to his wife Sarah, age 38, he had 3 sons and 2 daughters, ranging in age from 17 to 3 years old. (United States Census for Lafayette County, Mississippi, accessed on Ancestry.com)

Unfortunately for Cleophas Shipp and his family, at the time of his accident in 1880, there were few, if any, government programs to aid the disabled. Those unable to work had to rely on the kindness of family, friends, and local private charitable institutions for assistance.

In 1888 the state of Mississippi did pass a pension law to aid Confederate veterans, but as

Announcement of Mississippi’s Pension Law in 1888 (The Weekly Democrat, Natchez, Mississippi, February 22, 1888)

it was written, it would seem that Shipp did not qualify. The legislation was very narrowly focused to allow pensions to only those veterans who were unable to work because of a war-related injury.


Although Shipp’s wounds were not caused by the war, he did indeed receive a pension under the 1888 law. In August 1889 he received his first yearly payment which amounted to $17.85.

Paperwork for Cleophas Shipp’s first pension payment in August 1889. (Familysearch.org)

Although he technically did not qualify for a pension under the 1888 law, the county officials may have disregarded the letter of the law and approved the pension for an obviously needy veteran. This flouting of the letter of the law would only have been necessary for two years; in 1890 the state adopted a new constitution, and it changed the rules of eligibility, making Shipp qualified for a pension:

The legislature shall provide by law, pensions for indigent soldiers and sailors who enlisted and honorably served in the Confederate army or navy in the late civil war, who are now resident in this state, and are not able to earn a support by their own labor. Pensions shall also be allowed to the indigent widows of such soldiers or sailors now dead, when from age or disease they cannot earn a support. Pensions shall also be allowed to the wives of such soldiers or sailors upon the death of the husband, if disabled and indigent as aforesaid. Pensions granted to widows shall cease upon their subsequent marriage.” (http://www.mdah.ms.gov/arrec/digital_archives/pensions/desc).

The first yearly payment Cleophas Shipp received was $17.85, which was not enough money to support a disabled individual, much less one with a large family. In 1896 the Mississippi House of Representatives introduced House Bill 341 “An Act for the Relief of C.W. Shipp,” but the bill failed to pass. (Journal of the House of Representatives of the State of Mississippi, 1896, page 439).

In 1900, Shipp had to fill out a detailed pension application with the State of Mississippi (Mississippi Department of Archives and History)

Fortunately for Shipp, there was someone willing to step up and help. Richard O. Simmons, the man who sent the initial information about Shipp’s plight to the Clarion-Ledger in 1902, made another appeal later that same year in another newspaper:


Lebanon, Miss., July 7, 1902

To the Editor of the South.

When I made a call through your most eminent paper for the old veteran, Bro. C.W. Shipp, of Water Valley, Miss., who has been confined to his bed over twenty-two years and can’t even sit up, has to lie all the time, there was a debt on his old home and I said I would be one of 800 to give the old brother 50 cents to pay the old home out. I supposed there would have been that number in the state who would give that amount. Only $50 was paid and the court ordered the old home sold. C.W. Shipp bid off the old home for $150. He paid the $50 leaving $100 due. He said to me in a private letter, if we would pay the $100 for him he would be mighty thankful for the same.

All the Southern States have a home for the old soldiers but Mississippi. Now, I will ask the ladies of the state to help me save the old brother’s home for him. I am no blood kin to him. I was in Lee’s army and he was in the Western and that makes us brothers in the Confederate cause. He lost his old mother last fall and that brought up the sale. Can I find 400 ladies in the state who will give the old Reb 25 cents and pay the $100 for him? Ladies, I will take the lead and give 50 cents more. Where are the Daughters of the Confederacy? Mrs. Hancock, of Red Banks, has given $1 and Mrs. Mary E. Anderson, of Pickens, sent me $1 for the old brother.

God bless the good ladies! Take them out and there would not be a man in these United States in fifteen years.

Who will comfort me in sorrow.

Who will dry the fallen tear;

Gently smooth the wrinkled forehead,

Who will whisper words of cheer?

Let his knapsack be my pillow,

And my mantle be the sky;

Hasten, comrades, to the battle,

I will like a soldier die.

Soon with angels I’ll be marching,

With bright laurels on my brow;

I have for my country fallen,

Who will care for me now?

Lay me where sweet flowers blossom,

Where the dainty lily grows,

Where the pinks and violets mingle,

Lay my head beneath a rose.

R.O. Simmons.

(The Canton Times, Canton, Mississippi, August 8, 1902)

I was curious to learn more about the man who was so willing to help a fellow veteran. I found that Richard O. Simmons was not a rich man; he was a farmer living in Marshall County, Mississippi, with his widowed daughter and three grandchildren. In all likelihood he had never met C.W. Shipp, who lived in Lafayette County. But Simmons saw in Shipp a fellow soldier, and even though they had fought in different armies and different theaters of the war, they were comrades united through service in a common cause. (1900 United States Census, Marshall County, Enumeration District 70, Page 10)

Richard O. Simmons enlisted in Company A, 24th Georgia Infantry, in March 1862. He served in the Army of Northern Virginia, and was still with his regiment when it surrendered at Appomattox Courthouse in 1865. (Compiled Service Record of R.O. Simmons, 24th Georgia Infantry; accessed on Fold3.com, March 28, 2018)

In his letter Simmons bemoaned the fact that Mississippi had no veteran’s home to take care of indigent and disabled veterans. In fact, Mississippi was the next to last state of those that joined the Confederacy to establish a facility to care for its old soldiers. On December 10, 1903, Beauvoir, Jefferson Davis’ home in Biloxi, opened as a veteran’s home. (“Jefferson Davis Soldier Home – Beauvoir,” by Lisa C. Foster and Susannah J. Ural, http://www.mshistorynow.mdah.ms.gov)

Beauvoir 2
Confederate Veterans on the Steps of Beauvoir (Cooper Collection, Mississippi Department of Archives and History)

Unfortunately neither Cleophas Shipp or Richard Simmons lived to see the opening of  the Beauvoir soldier’s home. Shipp passed away on March 31, 1903, a victim of typhoid fever. Simmons died on November 13, 1903, less than a month before the opening of Beauvoir. (Confederate Grave Registration Card of C.W. Shipp, Mississippi Department of Archives and History; Findagrave listing for Richard O. Simmons, http://www.findagrave.com)

Although it came to late to help Cleophas Shipp, I’d like to think that both he and Richard Simmons would have been happy knowing that other veterans like themselves lived out their lives in comfort at Beauvoir on the Mississippi gulf coast.











“The Cruel War:” A Child’s Reminiscence of the Civil War

In 1907, the newspaper in Ripley, Mississippi, published a letter written by Cornelius H. Ray, who was then living in Texas but had grown up in Tippah County, Mississippi. This is an interesting letter written by someone who was a child during the Civil War, explaining how the conflict impacted his family:

Ripley, Mississippi, early 1900s
Photo of Ripley, Mississippi from the early 1900s, around the time that Cornelius H. Ray wrote his letter to town newspaper. (Pintrest)


As I write this my mind runs back to the time when a lad in the hills of Tippah County, Miss., being born in January 1859, I can remember some things that occurred during the war of ’61 to ’64. The people call it the civil war, but I don’t. I call it the cruel war, as all others have been. My father was a Southern soldier and fought four years in that war, but I want to say now that while I am full of Southern blood and had all the Southern principles instilled into me that yet, with me the war is over. I could not be the sort of Christian man I ought to be and hold malice against my fellow-man, so I love them all, and any reference that I should make to the things that I remember about the war is not mentioned in malice, but only as matters of interest.

I remember when the first Northern soldiers came into Tippah county that they wore the uniform of the Southern men, and as they came up by Ruckersville, the good old Dr. Rucker lived there and had a shotgun, and they asked him what he had that gun for, and he said: ‘To kill Yankees with,’ so they took him along with them, and up a little further they met my grandfather, Spencer Gibbs, and my father, Mack Ray. They had started to mill horseback and were in their shirt sleeves, and as they saw the soldiers grandfather hallooed: ‘Hurrah for the rebs!’ so they took them in. In the same raid they got Uncle Jess Ray and took them all off to a Northern prison. Uncle Jess died there, as did many others, and the rest of them wished for their coats after being captured that day. Grandfather saw Dr. Rucker and said, ‘Hello, doctor; what are you doing here?’ He answered that he saw that crowd needed a gentleman in it, so he had just come along with them.

[Editor’s Note: Cornelius Ray’s father, Marion “Mack” Ray, his uncle, Jesse “Jess” Ray, and grandfather, Spencer Gibbs, were Confederate soldiers. All three enlisted in the 2nd Mississippi Infantry (Davidson’s) Army of 10,000, in December 1861. The three were discharged when the unit disbanded in early 1862, and they all later enlisted in Company G, 7th Mississippi Cavalry. Their service records do not mention the incident of being captured by the Federals, but it could have happened before they enlisted for the second time. (Compiled Service Records, Accessed on Fold3.Com). The “Dr. Rucker” may be Charles Covington Rucker, a local physician who lived in Tippah County (1860 Tippah County Census, page 471)]

I remember how my poor mother and our grandmother cried as they came back by home with father and grandfather, and how, as they looked up the road after them as they carried them off. But begging did no good; it was war time and a time it was. I don’t know how long it was before they got back home, but a good while, and I have forgotten what became of that corn. I guess they took it also with the men, mules and horses, as all were needed in war.

[Editor’s Note: Cornelius Ray’s mother was Elizabeth “Eliza” Jane Ray. The grandmother he was speaking of may be Sarah Ann Gibbs, the wife of Spencer Gibbs. (Findagrave.com listings for Elizabeth Ray and Sarah Ann Gibbs).

A Railroad Station in Mississippi being burned by Union Cavalry (http://www.burnpit.us/2013/04/griersons-raid-engages-rebels-during-grants-vicksburg-campaign)

Later I remember that grandfather had an old fashioned gin and thresher combined, and that it had a lot of wheat straw around it, and one day a man rode up to the gate and asked for a chunk of fire to light his pipe with. Grandmother took it to him and he rode off to the gin and threw it in the straw, but mother went at once with a bucket of water and put it out, so it stood long after the war was over. My grandfather’s place was ten miles south of Pocahontas, Tenn., on the Ripley and Pocahontas road. Many Tippah County folks knew where it is or was. I remember the battle of Corinth. I remember to have heard the cannon and the roar of battle. I was 25 miles away, but we could hear it plain. This letter is long enough. More by and by.

C.H. Ray

Southern Sentinel (Ripley, Mississippi), September 19, 1907

Cornelius H. Ray was born on January 8, 1859, in Union County South Carolina. His parents and grandparents moved from South Carolina to Tippah County, Mississippi, in the late 1850s. The findagrave.com listing for his grandfather, Spencer Gibbs, notes: “He and his family joined a caravan of several families moving from the Cross Keys area in Union District to Jonesborough in Tippah Co, MS in late October 1859.”  The Ray family moved to Texas in the 1870’s, and eventually settled in the town of Weatherford. Cornelius H. Ray became a Baptist minister in Weatherford, and lived there until his death on March 12, 1941.

Vicksburg and the 4th of July

I have often seen it written in histories of the city of Vicksburg, that after the surrender of July 4, 1863, the citizens did not celebrate another 4th of July for 82 years – that it took the end of World War 2 before the people could bring themselves to mark the occasion of the American colonies from Great Britain. As with many popular stories, it does have a grain of truth; celebrations of Independence Day were rather muted for many years. But to say that  they were entirely absent for those 82 years is just not true.

To begin with, one must remember that Vicksburg was occupied by Union troops after

Masthead from the Daily Herald, July 6, 1864 (Newspapers.com)

the surrender of the city, and remained Federal territory until the end of the war. For the Union soldiers stationed in Vicksburg, July 4, 1864, was not only the birthday of the United States, it also marked the anniversary of one of the greatest victories of the war, the surrender of the “Gibraltar of the Confederacy.”

On July 2, 1864, The Vicksburg Herald, a newspaper run by former Union soldier Ira A. Batterton, wrote of the importance of Independence day:

FOURTH OF JULY – Monday being the 4th day of July, we desire to consecrate it to the noble memories of the glorious men who on that day ushered into existence a mighty nation. Printers regard it as little short of sacrilege to work upon that day, and we shall therefore issue no paper on the 5th. Let us all do honor to the glorious 4th. Let gay banners flaunt in the air, and grateful hearts be lifted up in ardent prayer for the salvation of the Union which has made us great. Printers, too, are fond of doing the honors of the 4th in the manner customary among gentlemen; and those of our patriotic produce merchants who wish to aid us in properly appreciating the day, will please forward their bottles of —– at as early an hour today as convenient, as we are naturally slow about drinking, and unless we start today may fail in taking on sufficient patriotism to run us through the fourth.

(The Vicksburg Herald, July 2, 1864)

The Herald was as good as its word about not publishing an issue on July 5th, so the next day’s paper carried the story about the Independence Day Celebration in Vicksburg:


The historic importance of the fourth of July to the city of Vicksburg suggest that the day should have been celebrated in grand old style; but we are sorry to say that there were no general arrangements made for the celebration of the first anniversary of the surrender of the city and the 88th of the Independence of the United States. This was a subject of almost universal regret on part of many of our citizens who seemed to have anticipated a grand gala-day. Why there were no preparations for a general celebration, we are not able to state.

Early in the morning the city exhibited some signs of patriotic demonstrations. The streets

Warren County Courthouse
Union Soldiers on the lawn of the Warren County Courthouse at Vicksburg (The Old Court House Museum, Vicksburg)

were crowded with persons anxiously enquiring the programme of the day. The greater number of business houses in the city displayed the “Stars and Stripes.”

The day began very pleasantly; there was no dust to add to the discomfiture of travelers – a fine shower of rain having fallen on the day previous. The contrast between this day and its anniversary is quite noticeable. The white flag floated over the city, and a victorious army marched through its streets after besieging it for forty-seven days. Well do we remember the grateful relief felt by besieger and besieged upon the capitulation of the city. What a grand sight it was to the Union soldier to see the white flag floating in the breeze along with the “Stars and Stripes,” and when that noble ensign of American liberty was seen waving from the dome of the Court House, the Union soldier, so deep were his emotions, could do or say but little else than point to “that dear old flag” and exclaim “long may it wave.”

Feeling the necessity of some kind of a demonstration to relieve the tedium of the day an impromptu celebration was gotten up by Lieut. E.S. Johnson, Post Quartermaster, who turned out the full force of his department for the occasion. There were six twelve mule teams in the procession, headed by a brass band. [Editor’s Note: Lieutenant E.S. Johnston was quartermaster of the 93rd Illinois Infantry. I found an order that he was “Relieved from duty as post Q.M. at Vicksburg, Mississippi, and will join his regiment without delay. The order was dated June 14, 1864, but must have taken some time to reach Johnston, as he was still on duty in July 1864. (Army & Navy Gazette, Volume 2, Page 14. Published in 1865)

The procession proceeded to the headquarters of Major-General Slocum, where it was halted and speeches made. Captain J. W. Davis, Commissary of Subsistence, was introduced and made a very appropriate and patriotic speech of an hour’s length, during which the Captain was frequently cheered. We regret that we are not able to give a synopsis of his speech. It will be remembered that the Captain is a war democrat of the Logan and McClernand school, and is wholly devoted to the cause of his country.[Editor’s Note: J.W. Davis apparently stayed in Vicksburg after the war, as I found a notice in the local paper that mentioned he was “Late of the U.S. Army and solicitor of the Freedman’s Bureau.” (Vicksburg Journal, March 8, 1866)

Private Gregg of the 124th regiment Illinois infantry, was next introduced and spoke for nearly an hour in regular old-fashioned 4th of July style, drawing forth frequent cheering. Major Barnes, U.S.A., was loudly called for, and responded in a short and telling speech, after which it was announced that the Grant-Pemberton monument would be erected at three o’clock in the afternoon, under the direction of Major McKee, Provost Marshal. The assemblage then dispersed.[Editor’s Note: “Private Gregg” was Private George W. Gregg of Company B, 124th Illinois Infantry. He enlisted in the regiment on September 10, 1862, and was mustered out on August 15, 1865. He was a resident of Batavia, Illinois. (https://civilwar.illinoisgenweb.org/reg_html/124_reg.html)%5D

Barracks of the 124th Illinois Infantry at Vicksburg, circa 1864 (http://www.old-picture.com/pics/civil-war/006/Mississippi-Vicksburg-Infantry-Illinois.htm)

Owing to the ill health of Major McKee, the erection of the monument was given by him in charge to Major Barnes and Captain Anderson U.S.A., who proceeded to the site, and found that every preparation had been made for the ceremony by Mr. Ed Miner, foreman in the employ of Captain William Finkler, Assistant Quartermaster, and to whom belongs the credit of having originated the scheme under the direction of the Captain.[Editor’s Note:

George C. McKee
Photo of George C. McKee taken about 1875 (Library of Congress)

“Major McKee” was Major George C. McKee of the 11th Illinois Infantry. After the siege ended, McKee remained in the city as Provost Marshal of the District of Vicksburg. On November 1, 1864, he was appointed Brigadier General of Enrolled Militia of the District of Vicksburg. McKee remained in Vicksburg after the war and got involved in politics, and served in the United States House of Representatives from 1869 – 1875. (http://www.arlingtoncemetery.net/gcmckee.htm)%5D

Quite a large assemblage having collected, the monument was placed in position at 4:30 o’clock, under the direction of Major Barnes and Captain Anderson, assisted by several other persons among whom the editorial “we” was to be found. The affair passed off splendidly, and every one engaged felt as though he had performed only what duty required, without display or ceremony.

The monument is of white marble, surrounded by an iron fence, the whole presenting a neat but rather imposing appearance. There is a square base upon which stands the main shaft of about eight feet in length, which is surmounted by the ornamental ball. The full height of the monument is about twelve feet. Upon the western face is the inscription:

surrender monument
The original surrender monument in the Vicksburg National Military Park. Today this monument is located inside the Visitor’s Center of the Park. (Library of Congress)

Site of Interview


Maj. Gen. U.S. Grant, U.S.A.,


General Pemberton,

July 3rd, 1863

The Daily Herald (Vicksburg, Mississippi,) July 6, 1864

In addition to the impromptu celebration held in Vicksburg, another, better organized commemoration was held at Brierfield, the home of Jefferson Davis, located at Davis Bend, south of Vicksburg. The local newspaper had a very detailed account of the July 4th festivities held there:

Celebration of the Fourth of July,

At the Residence of


Davis’s Bend, Mississippi




By invitation of the “Committee of Arrangements” a party of teachers and their escorts and other friends of the Freedmen, embarked on bard the “Diligent” on the morning of the 4th inst. The Diligent left the levee at Vicksburg soon after 7 o’clock a.m., and made a pleasant trip in about three hours, down the river, stopping at the landing at Davis’ Bend, whence the party were conveyed in ambulances, wagons, buggies and other vehicles, to the late residence of JEFFERSON DAVIS, about two miles from said landing.

brierfield plantation
Union Soldiers at Brierfield – This Picture Was Probably Taken During the July 4th, 1864 Independence Day Celebration at Brierfield. (Old Court House Museum, Vicksburg, MS)


This is one of the most extraordinary bends of the wonderful Mississippi river, and has received its name from the fact of the settlement on the peninsula formed by the bend, two members of the Davis family, known as “JEFF,” and “JOE.” This peninsula is some twelve miles in length, and at the point where it is attached to the mainland of the State of Mississippi, it is so narrow, that the enterprising planters have dug a canal across, not unlike the celebrated Butler canal of Vicksburg fame, although not near so long. This canal is called the “cut-off,” and in high water the peninsula becomes, in fact, an island. This tract of land is of great fertility, being entirely a deposit of the rich soil washed from the prairies of the great west. On this tract is some six plantations of from 800 to 1200 acres each. Two of the largest and best of these were owned by JEFF and JOE DAVIS, and are known now as the “JEFF. An JOE places.”

Map of Davis Bend (The Clarion Ledger, July 25, 1965)

The form of this peninsula is such that a few companies of soldiers with one or two stockades can keep out an army of rebels, and the inhabitants, although frequently surrounded by the hordes of Southern murderers and thieves on the opposite banks of the river and canal, dwell in peace and comparative security. In fact this site, from being the home of traitors and oppressors of the poor, has become a sort of earthly paradise for colored refugees. There they flock in large numbers, and like Lazarus of old are permitted, as it were, to “repose in Father Abraham’s bosom.” The rich men of the “Southern Confederacy;” now homeless wanderers, occasionally cry across for the Lazarus whom they have oppressed and despised, but he is not sent unto them, because between the two parties “there is a great gulf fixed; so that they which would pass from hence cannot.” On this Freedmen’s paradise parties for cultivating the soil are organized under the superintendence of missionaries, each party cultivating from ten to 100 acres, with a fair prospect of realizing handsomely. These efforts are aided by the government, rations, teams, &c, being supplied and charged to each party, to be deducted from the proceeds of their crops. Cotton is chiefly cultivated, and some very handsome “stands” appear.


The “JOE PLACE” is nearest the landing. The fine brick house, however, is nearly demolished, but the cottage used as a sort of law library and office, is remaining uninjured. The negro quarters also remain.

Hurricane Cottage
Slaves Standing in Front of the Garden Cottage at Hurricane Plantation, owned by Joseph Davis (The Old Court House Museum, Vicksburg, MS)


The “JEFF. PLACE” is also a very fine plantation. The residence has not been injured, except the door locks and one or two marble mantels broken up, apparently for trophies. The JEFF furniture has been removed, but the rooms are still furnished with furniture brought here.


The house is in its ground plan, in the form of a cross – but one floor with large rooms and ample verandas. The portico in front is supported with pillars, and these form the only ornamental features of the house, except such as were added for this occasion by the artistic touches of our Northern sisters. Of these were festoons, wreaths, stars and garlands, mysteriously woven in evergreens and flowers. Over the portico entrance outside, were the following inscriptions, the letters being formed by cedar foliage:



The House Jeff Built
Close-Up of Brierfield Showing “The House Jeff Built” Sign.

The latter motto was arched and with the festoons made a very beautiful appearance. Inside were beautiful stars and garlands of flowers and over the exit at the back door the following inscription, surmounted by a star;


It was facetiously remarked by an observer, that the moral was:

“Down with the traitor

And up with the star.”

We understand that to Miss Lee, of Pa., and Miss Jennie Huddleson, of Inda., the party was indebted for those ingenious and appropriate devices. Very likely, for wit and satire, for traitors and a cordial welcome to the loyal and patriotic, are characteristics of these whole-souled missionaries. The reception rooms were also decorated with flowers, and everything around showed that “gentle hands” had laid on “the last touches” of fragrance, grace and beauty. [Editor’s Note: “Miss Lee” is probably Henrietta Lee, who is listed as a teacher of freedmen at Davis Bend in the Book “The Evangelical Repository, and United Presbyterian Review, Old Series XLII, New Series Vol. IV, Page 96.]

Another Image of Brierfield Showing Soldier and Civilians Standing on the Front Porch. This image was probably made during the July 4, 1864 Independence Day Celebration at Brierfield. (https://www.wisconsinhistory.org/Records/Image/IM76916)

These “ladies of the management,” were dressed in neat “patriotic prints;” they needed no addition to their toilets to add to the charming air of comfort which they so appropriately infused. Their smiles of welcome needed no verbal explanation; and the heartiness with which they were engaged in their “labors of love,” and the evidence of their success in all the surroundings, showed that they perfectly understand the science of “making home happy.” Whether they have read Mrs. H.B. Stowe’s “House and Home Papers” in the Atlantic, we know not, but there are many others, besides that literary lady (Mrs. S) who understand “how to keep house; “ by magic touches, to turn the most simple objects into luxuries of ornamentation. We suspect that Mrs. M. Watson and Miss Lizzie Findley had been engaged in these preparations, although appearing more in the character of guests. [Editor’s Note: Lizzie Findley is listed as a teacher of freedmen at Davis Bend in the Book “The Evangelical Repository, and United Presbyterian Review, Old Series XLII, New Series Vol. IV, Page 96. On Page 98 of the same publication it is noted that Lizzie Findley had died “Since the last Meeting of the Assembly.”]

There were some other ladies to whom we had not the honor of an introduction, who doubtless deserve particular mention; but your reporter, as the sequel of his story will show, only received his appointment as a publication committee after all was over, and consequently, if he should omit anybody’s name that deserves mention, this must be his apology. He now declares his desire to be just to all, and especially to those whose devotion and patriotism rendered the fourth of July, 1864, the happiest day of the year.


On the grounds, in front of the residence the gunboat crew, suspended a string of signal colors, on each side of the “starry banner,” presenting an effect amid the dense foliage of the live-oaks, and the grey moss, “altogether beauteous to look upon,” while on the tables under the trees were spread things not only “pleasant to the sight,” but “good for food.” And when we saw these pleasing objects, the “work of their hands,” and the merry, happy faces of the guests and their “escorts” and reflected that the sable sons, by a guard of whom we were surrounded, were “no longer slaves;” that they had with thousands of their brethren been brought out from the House of Bondage, by the “God of Abraham;” that the very house now occupied by missionaries and teachers had but a year ago, been in the service of despotism; built in fact as a temple of slavery by the great chief who preferred to rule in a miserable petty despotism, to serving in a great and magnanimous Republic, we could but think that Heaven looked approvingly upon the scene; that “God saw everything that he had made, and behold it was very good.”


Rev. Dr. Warren conducted the exercises as President of the occasion, and he did it with that ease,

Joseph Warren, Chaplain of the 64th Regiment, United States Colored Troops, conducted the exercises at the Independence Day Celebration. (Author’s Photograph)

freedom, and regard for the rights and interests of all, which usually characterize his public and social conduct. He opened the proceedings under a grove of trees in front of the house with an appropriate prayer, and then called upon those appointed to take part.

MR. ROUNDTREE read the “Declaration of Independence” in a clear, emphatic and impressive manner. It was listened to with becoming reverence for the great truths it contains by both the white and colored races. It is quite improbably that these “self-evident” truths were ever expressed before publicly in this locality, and within hearing of every one within the “House that Jeff. Built.” REV. MR. LIVERMORE, of Wis., delivered an appropriate oration. The meeting then adjourned for dinner. A gentle shower at this time rendered the air cool and pleasant, but rendered it necessary to remove the dining tables to the house.

[Editor’s Note: The “Rev. Mr. Livermore” may be Daniel Parker Livermore, a Universalist Minister from Massachusetts. His wife, Mary A. Livermore, was an associate manager of the Chicago Sanitary Commission, and she made a trip to Vicksburg in 1863 to bring supplies to the troops. (Chicago Portraits: New Edition, by June Skinner Sawyers, Page 197.


A sumptuous dinner was served on the veranda at the back of the mansion. There was an abundance of all that could be desired. A blessing asked by REV. MR. ALLEN. This being concluded, the following sentiments were presented and responded to in an impromptu, but appropriate manner by the various speakers:


1. The day we celebrate – The old ship was launched in ’76; the bow anchors cast out last year at Vicksburg and Gettysburg. May the stern anchors be dropped to day at Richmond and Atlanta.


[Editor’s Note: There was an Israel Lombard, Junior, from Boston, Massachusetts, that was a supporter of abolition, and he is mentioned several times in the anti-slavery newspaper “The Liberator;” This may very well be the same man. (See The Liberator, January 5, 1855, and May 18, 1860)]

2. The President – Proved honest and wise by four years of unprecedented trial, we shall keep keep him there.

Responded to by DR. WRIGHT,

3. Lieut. Gen. Grant – We can tie to him in a gale.

Responded to by COL. CLARK,

4. The house that Jeff. Built.

Responded to by CAPT. POWELL,

The following song composed for the occasion, was lead by Mr. McConnell:


Air – “Auld Lang Syne,”

How oft within these airy halls

The traitor of the day

Has heard ambition’s trumpet calls,

Or dreamed of war’s array!

Or of an Empire dreamed, whose base

Millions of blacks should be:

Aha! Before this day’s sweet face

Where can his visions be?

Those Empire dreams shall be fulfilled,

But not as rebels thought –

Like water at the cistern spilled,

Their boasts shall come to nought.

From gulf to lake, from sea to sea,

Behold our country grand!

The very home of Liberty –

And guarded by her hand.

We revel in his halls to day:

Next year where will he be?

A dread account he has to pay:

May we be there to see!

And now for country, truth and right –

Our heritage all free,

We’ll live and die, we’ll sing and fight:

THE UNION! Three time three.

5. The Army and Navy: Veterans of three years; The heart of the Nation beats anxiously at the cry, “Onward to Victory:

Response by DR. FOSTER,

6. Our Patriot Dead: Silence their most speaking eulogy.

7. The Union: The storm will but root it more firmly.

Response by REV. A.J. COMPTON,

The Star Spangled Banner – sung by the whole company, led by MR. MCCONNELL.

8. Missionaries to Freedmen – Peace has its heroes.

Response by REV. MR. BUCKLEY, Chaplain 47th U.S.C.I.

[Editor’s Note: “Rev. Mr. Buckley” was Charles W. Buckley, chaplain of the 47th Regiment, United States Colored Infantry. (National Park Service Civil War Soldiers and Sailors System; https://www.nps.gov/civilwar/soldiers-and-sailors-database.htm)%5D

9. General Sherman, second in command “All I am I owe to my government, and nothing could tempt me to sacrifice my honor or my allegiance.”

Response by CAPTAIN GILPIN, C.S.

[Editor’s Note: “Captain Gilpin” was Captain James B. Gilpin, who served as Depot Commissary Officer at Vicksburg. (Vicksburg Herald, June 30, 1864)]

10. The Freedmen – Slaves yesterday; to day free: what shall they be tomorrow?

11. Our Revolutionary Fathers: – “Their memory is sweet,

and blossoms in the dust.”

12. Our Mothers at Home: Let us not, while givign praise to the noble sons, forget those who fought for each one of us in the fierce battle of life in by-gone days. Let the memory of their unselfish love make us true and brave in this our country’s darkest hour.

Response by Mrs. FRANCES D. GAGE,

[Editor’s Note: Frances D. Gage worked for the Western Sanitary Commission – I wrote a lengthy blog article about her in 2014 – it can be found here: https://mississippiconfederates.wordpress.com/2014/06/07/three-weeks-in-the-soldiers-home-at-vicksburg/]

13. Our Colored Troops: Deserving of freedom because they fight like men.

Response by LIEUT. WAKEMAN.

Song – “Babylon is fallen.”

14. Sweethearts and Wives; Woman, lovely woman. Nature made you to temper man; we had been brutes without you. Angels are painted fair to look like you. There is in you all that we believe of heaven, amazing brightness, purity and truth, eternal and everlasting love.

Response by REV. MR. ALLEN, Episcopal minister of Aurora, Illinois.

The party, after selecting a few simple trophies, such as fig branches for walking canes, large pond lillies, flowers, wreaths and boquets, returned to the landing, and reembarked for Vicksburg.


On the boat the following business was transacted:

Vote of thanks to COL. THOMAS and staff for getting up the celebration: to the Orator of the day, PARSON LIVERMORE, to the President, REV. DR. WARREN, who made a brief response; and also to CAPTAIN WIGHTMAN and officers of the “Diligent.”

Cheers were given for Abraham Lincoln, and groans for Jeff. Davis. The song, “The House that Jeff Built,” was again sung, and CAPTAIN GILPIN, C.S., appointed a committee to furnish a copy of the same to the New York Tribune and also to JEFF. Davis.

CAPTAIN HENRY S. CLUBB A.Q.M., was appointed a committee to furnish a report of the proceedings of the day to the Vicksburg Daily Herald. The Diligent arrived at Vicksburg at half-past eleven o’clock, p.m. The celebration was regarded as a great success, and expressions of satisfaction and enjoyment were universal.

In the course of my research, I also managed to turn up an account of the 4th of July Celebration at Davis Island written by a member of the crew of the ironclad U.S.S. Mound City, who only identified himself by the initials “B.A.” The unnamed crewman wrote:

And now I wish to give you a little idea of how we spent the glorious 4th in this land of cinnamon seeds and sandy bottoms. The day was ushered in at sunrise by a rousing salute of 21 guns from the Mound City. They were no ear splitting six pounders, but full charged nine inch guns and 100 lbs. rifles fired at regular intervals, their sullen thunder reverberating for miles through the forests on either side the river. A similar salute was fired at meridian and again at sundown.

USS Mound City

The arrangement was made to give all the loyal people in the vicinity an opportunity of celebrating the 4th at the residence of Mr. Jefferson Davis, Esq., novel idea! Through the exertions of several “Yankee school marms,” the house was tastefully decorated for the occasion…”

The banquet was spread in the wide verandas and the tables groaned beneath their weight of good things. The cusine had been well attended to and there was no lack of delicacies or substantials. About 10 a.m., the steamer Diligent arrived from Vicksburg with a merry party of ladies and gentlemen to participate with us. It would hardly be proper to dignify the gathering as a celebration, and pic-nic would be better adapted, therefore we will call it a pic-nic on the 4th of July at Jeff. Davis’ house, Briarly place, his residence, his plantation.

Let the northern people for a moment suppose what the practical position of things must be, should enemies be on that day revelling at the house of Abraham Lincoln, at Springfield. The thought should inspire any Union man with hope. I was credibly informed that an invitation was passed through the lines to be forwarded to Old Jeff. to be present on the occasion; but his non-appearance was easily accounted for.

(Fox Lake Gazette, Fox Lake, Wisconsin, July 20, 1864)

The Civil War ended in 1865, and within a few years the occupation troops were gone

Advertisement for a July 4th Excursion in 1884. (The Vicksburg Herald, July 4, 1864)

from Vicksburg, but some residents did continue to participate in celebrations of the 4th of July. In particular, Vicksburg’s African American residents made sure that Independence Day was remembered. In 1884 a Vicksburg newspaper noted:

‘All the high-toned colored people that reside for miles around’ excurted on on the steamer Cherokee yesterday to Anthony’s Ferry, in celebration of the glorious fourth. A colored picnic on DeSoto Island was also a strong feature of the days celebrations in the Hill City. (The Vicksburg Herald, July 5, 1884)

As time went on, white residents of Vicksburg began to celebrate Independence Day as well. On July 4, 1917, a Vicksburg newspaper carried the bold headline “Glorious Fourth To Be Observed Today,” and wrote that

Many Vicksburgers will participate in the celebration of Independence Day today. A barbecue and picnic at Swett’s Pond will be the chief feature of attraction during the day and tonight, beginning at 8:30 o’clock, an appropriate and patriotic program will be presented at the Carnegie Library…Many of the stores of the city will close during the afternoon hours, in order to allow their clerks to attend the barbecue. Conveyances will operate between the grounds and city throughout the day. (The Vicksburg Herald, July 4, 1918)

In July 1945, with the war in Europe over, and the war against Japan in its final months, the city of Vicksburg held a 4th of July celebration that was claimed at the time to be the first since the Civil War.

Advertisement for Vicksburg’s July 4th Celebration in 1945 (The Clarion-Ledger, July 1, 1945)

While it was not the first celebration of the 4th of July in Vicksburg since the Civil War, it was almost certainly the largest. The day’s festivities included a parade, baseball game, and an air show that included fly-over’s by B-29 Bombers and P-51 fighters. (The Clarion-Ledger, July 1, 1945)

Scenes from the 1945 July 4th Parade in Vicksburg (The Clarion-Ledger, July 5, 1945)

Having found the 1945 July 4th celebration to be very popular, Vicksburg’s city fathers invited United States Secretary of War Robert P. Patterson to be the guest of honor at the 1946 Independence Day festivities. Patterson accepted the offer, and 1,700 soldiers from Camp Polk, Louisiana, were sent to Vicksburg to march in the city’s parade. (The Clarion-Ledger, July 4, 1946).

Advertisement for the 1946 July 4th Celebration in Vicksburg. The city called its festivities “The Carnival of the Confederacy.” (The Clarion-Ledger, June 27, 1946)

After two successful celebrations in a row, Vicksburg pulled out all the stops for the 1947 celebration of the 4th of July. Too large to be contained to only one day, the “Carnival of the Confederacy” spanned three days, and was climaxed with a speech by General Dwight D. Eisenhower.



Scenes from the 1947 “Carnival of the Confederacy” in Vicksburg. (The Clarion-Ledger, July 6, 1947)

A newspaper said of the 1947 celebration:

Vicksburg fell to Grant’s 75,000 men after a 47-day siege during which mule meat became a table luxury for the bedraggled Confederates. But today General Eisenhower was welcomed with welcome arms.

Eisenhower declared that ‘just as Vicksburg was a crucible where differences were fired and joined into a strong and inseparable national unity, so the last war, which ended with an inferno of destruction, can be the start of a world union for peace.’ (The Morning News, Wilmington, Delaware, July 5, 1947)

In 1948 Vicksburg officials invited Harry Truman to be the celebrity speaker on the 4th

(The Clarion-Ledger, February 25, 1948)

of July, but the president declined, and the city had to settle for Senator John Stennis as the guest of honor. The last of the big time celebrations was over, but Vicksburg would continue to acknowledge the 4th of July with less spectacular but very patriotic observances from that day forward. (The Hattiesburg American, June 24, 1948.

“I Thought the Whole Confederacy Had Fallen on Me:” A Story of the “Death Crater” at Vicksburg

On June 25, 1863, the 3rd Louisiana Redan disappeared in a choking cloud of flame, earth, and smoke as 2,200 pounds of black powder were detonated in a mine located beneath the earthwork fort. The blast gouged out a huge crater where the front face of the redan had been, and as the debris settled a Union assault force poured into the breach in the Confederate line, sparking a bloody fight that would last well into the night.

One of the soldiers who took part in the assault on the 3rd Louisiana Redan was John T.

Wartime photo of John T. Wiesman (The Nebraska State Journal, November 11, 1906)

Wiesman, a cannoneer with McAllister’s Battery, also known as Company D, 1st Illinois Light Artillery. In October 1906 Wiesman traveled from his home in Nebraska to Vicksburg for the dedication of the Illinois Monument at the National Military Park. The visit to the battlefield was a moving experience for Wiesman, and after he returned to Nebraska he wrote an article about the trip for his local paper, The Nebraska State Journal, which was published on November 11, 1906.

At the siege of Vicksburg two guns of the battery held positions on the Jackson wagon road near the now famous white house (Shirley house). The other two guns stood in front of the white house on the spot where the Illinois monument has been erected where Capt. Henry A. Rogers and four enlisted men were killed during the siege.

Explosion of a Mine

Sometime after the charge of the 22d of may, which was a failure, General Grant conceived the idea of tunneling under Ft. Hill, called by the confederates the Third Louisiana redoubt. A tunnel was started a short distance from the battery and was run so as to reach directly under the fort. After it was completed, 2,200 pounds of powder was placed in the mine and when all was ready, a fuse leading into the mine was lighted and a terrific explosion resulted, which hurled men and cannons up in the air.

Mine Explosion
Explosion of the mine under the 3rd Louisiana Redan (Harper’s Weekly Magazine, July 25, 1863)

It was a sight never to be forgotten by those who witnessed it. One negro who was tossed up with the earth, came down on our side of the line unharmed. After the explosion, which formed a crater about the size of a half block, the Forty-Fifth Illinois was rushed into the crater to make a lodgment in the confederate line and tried to break through, but the explosion had not accomplished what was expected and the confederates immediately went to work trying to restore their shattered works.

Threw Shells by Hand

After a short time a squad of the battery under command of Lieut. Edgar H. Cooper, afterward promoted to captain, was detailed to enter the crater to throw shells over the enemies breastworks by hand, cutting the fuse at five seconds. While so engaged, David W. Ocker, of our squad, was blown to pieces by the premature discharge of a shell. A.D. Burr of this city and myself were in this squad. As we emerged from the tunnel into the crater, a hand grenade struck Lieutenant Colonel Reese of [the] Thirty-First Illinois which literally disemboweled him.

A Death Crater

We stood for some time on the edge of the crater waiting for orders, seeing sights which were well calculated to freeze the blood in one’s veins. Over on the confederate side of the crater men were grappling with each other, some clubbing with their muskets but at the same time they were gradually rebuilding their works. After awhile, General Logan, Major Stohlbrand, his chief of artillery, led our squad to the confederate side of the crater and we began to throw shells over in the midst of the confederates, who soon returned the compliment by throwing shells by hand into the crater.

Fighting in the Crater
Union soldiers charging into the crater at Vicksburg. (www.etc.usf.edu)

It was my duty to hold a lighted taper with which, when the fuse was cut, I lighted the shell when it would be thrown over the breastworks. I lay close to the enemy’s works, that seeming to me to be the safest place. During the fight in the crater the confederates rolled a cottonwood sapling over to our side, striking me square on the back of my neck. Although it was very light, I thought the whole confederacy had fallen on me, Jeff Davis along with the rest of them.

Battle in the crater
Fighting in the crater at Vicksburg (Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper, August 1, 1863)

After dark the assault in the crater was abandoned and the army settled down to a regular siege, and when “Johnnie Rebel” had eaten his last steak of mule meat, Vicksburg was surrendered.

Visit to Comrade’s Grave

I went to the national cemetery where over 16,000 of our boys in blue are buried, two-thirds of them in unknown graves and as I stood by the grave of James W. Ditto, an intimate comrade of mine, and thought of him as he looked just before he fell forty-three years ago, a fine, manly, young fellow, scarcely eighteen years old, the idol of the company, my eyes filled with tears. If the recording angel keeps a correct account, the men who were responsible for bringing on the war between the north and the south will be kept very busy explaining matters to Saint Peter when the big book is opened on the day of judgment.

If the old veterans who were at Vicksburg during the siege, should happen to go back there

Battery D Monument
Illustration Showing the Monument to Battery D, 1st Illinois Light Artillery at Vicksburg

now, they would be surprised. Vicksburg is not the sleepy city it was then. The government has established a national military park, dotted with fine monuments and markers laid out in beautiful driveways, at a cost of millions of dollars. The city is booming and has taken on a new life. The visitors attending the dedication of the Illinois state monument were royally entertained by the ex-confederate soldiers.

The Nebraska State Journal (Lincoln, Nebraska), November 11, 1906

I was intrigued by John Wiesman’s story, and thought I would see what else I could find out about him. My efforts were immediately successful, as I found a letter he wrote to the editor of the National Tribune concerning the battle of the crater at Vicksburg:

The Crater at Fort Hill

Editor National Tribune: I have been very much interested in your history of the Opening of the Mississippi, and take it for granted that you wish to be absolutely correct in your statements. Now, you give a minute description of what took place in the crater at Fort Hill, and only mention what the several infantry commands did. You say that shells were thrown by hand over the rebel breastworks by the tunnel diggers and the infantry. Now, as a matter of fact, not a single shell was thrown by any of them. 

Shortly after the explosion, McAllister’s Battery was detailed by sections to throw shells by hand, cutting the fuse at five seconds. Every shell thrown in the crater was thrown by artillery. Serg’t David W. Ocker was killed by a shell thrown from the rebel side, and, by the way he stands today, in the Illinois State Roster, branded as a deserter. How is it possible that this brave boy, who gave up his life for his country in that hellhole, could be marked as a deserter? I cannot imagine, unless it was done by some lunkhead clerk in the Adjutant’s office at the time the roster was printed. 

Illustration Depicting McAllister’s Battery at the Battle of Fort Donelson, Tennessee. (Battles & Leaders Volume 1, Page 449)

The artillery detail was in charge of Lieut. Edgar H. Cooper, who after the death of Capt. H.A. Rodgers, killed during the siege, was promoted to Captain and afterwards to Major for bravery displayed on the battlefield of Atlanta, July 22, 1864. Major Cooper is still living and resides in Chicago. 

As to who threw the shells in the crater it matters little, I suppose, at this late day, but credit should be given where credit is due. After the surrender the 45th Ill., was given the post of honor, being the first to enter Vicksburg. McAllister’s Battery came second, following immediately after the 45th, and was the first artillery to enter the city.

John T. Wiesman, Co. D, 1st Ill. Art., Lincoln, Neb. (The National Tribune, Washington, D.C.., December 27, 1906.)

I also found a letter, written by Charles Koch, a member of the Illinois Vicksburg Military Park Commission, to William T. Rigby, superintendent of the Vicksburg National Military Park, concerning the part played by Battery D, 1st Illinois Light Artillery, in the fighting at the crater:

June 25th came the day when Fort Hill was blown up. Immediately after the explosion, it having been discovered that the embrasure was not sufficient to permit our troops to march in to Vicksburg, Lt. Cooper was called upon by Gen. Logan and asked to furnish 12 volunteers for the purpose of throwing hand grenade over the works from the aperture made by the explosion into the enemies works. Volunteers failed to respond so Lt. Cooper asked how many would follow him and all responded, so that a choice had to be made of 12 men,…out of the 12 men who entered the crater, viz: E.H. Cooper was unhurt, C.L. Pratt was unhurt; Francis Meek, wounded and died December 1, 1863, at Vicksburg; David Ocker, killed June 25th; Eli Sprague lost a finger; Chauncey I. Cooper flesh wound in left thigh; Vincent Bowers wounded in right leg; John T. Wiesman, flesh wound in the left arm; B.D. Washington wounded in the right wrist; A.D. Burr not hurt; Richard Henderson not hurt; George A. Potter not hurt. (Always in the Middle of the Battle: Edward Kiniry and the 1st Illinois Light Artillery Battery D by David Edward Wall)

After the war, John Wiesman moved about the mid-west before finally settling in Nebraska and becoming a railroad conductor. In addition to visiting Vicksburg, he also attended a reunion at the Shiloh battlefield in 1895. (The Nebraska State Journal, April 10, 1895, and June 1, 1910.) The old veteran passed away in Lincoln, Nebraska, on May 31, 1910, and is buried in Wyuka Cemetery. (findagrave.com listing for John T. Wiesman).

“The Old Soldiers Make Good Citizens:” A Union Veteran Settles in Vicksburg

On November 15, 1906, the Iowa Monument was dedicated in honor of the men from the Hawkeye State that fought in the siege  of Vicksburg. In honor of the occasion, a local newspaper  had local citizen William H. Bleything write an article about his Civil War service, which they published in that day’s edition. (Vicksburg Evening Post, November 15, 1906). The Post had a very good reason for choosing Bleything to write about his civil war experiences; he was, as they asserted, “the only citizen here who served in the rank and file of an Iowa regiment during the war.” Bleything was a good writer, and he gives a very detailed account of his regiment’s participation in the siege of Vicksburg. I hope you enjoy it as much as I did.

The Iowa State Memorial in Vicksburg National Military Park (National Park Service)

Reminiscences of Iowa Soldier Now a Citizen of Vicksburg

W.H. Bleything

Company F, 30th Iowa Infantry

Mr. W.H. Bleything, who has been a citizen of Vicksburg for many years, and highly respected by the community, is we believe the only citizen here who served in the rank and file of an Iowa regiment during the war. At the request of The Post, Mr. Bleything has given us a brief sketch of his war experiences, which we are sure will be read with great interest by his army comrades as well as by the people of the city.

Bleything 1
The copy of Bleything’s photo in the November 15, 1906, edition of The Vicksburg Evening Post was very dark and hard to see. Fortunately they used it again in the paper for his obituary, and this copy is much better. It is in the March 21, 1911, edition of the Post.

The picture above is copied from one that was taken when Mr. Bleything was a young man and wearing his blue uniform. The following is the substance of what Mr. Bleything gave us in regard to his services and experiences in the Union army.

I enlisted in Troy, Davis County, Iowa, on August 13, 1862. Our company was organized at

15th A.C. 1st Div. Badge
Civil War Badge of the 15th Army Corps, 1st Division (Worthpoint.com)

Bloomfield, Iowa, where we were mustered into the U.S. service by Major Ball, U.S. Army, as Co. F, 30th Iowa Infantry. The regiment was ordered to St. Louis in November; thence to Helena, Arkansas, where we were assigned to the 1st division, 15th Army Corps, Gen. Fred. Steele, commanding the division and Gen. W.T. Sherman the corps. Our entire service was in the 1st Division, 15th Corps.

We took part in the unsuccessful Chickasaw Bayou expedition; re-embarked on the boats and went up the Mississippi to mouth of the Arkansas River, and up that stream to Arkansas Post, the 30th Iowa regiment being engaged and taking an active part in the capture of the fort and garrison on January 11, 1863.

We again took boat, came down the river to Young’s Point, marched across the peninsula

Grant's Canal
Union Soldiers working on the Canal Opposite Vicksburg (Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper, March 28, 1863 – Library of Congress)

and camped on the O’Brien place just below the mouth of the canal. We lay there a short while in the mud and water, digging the canal. We were then ordered down the river to Biggs plantation where we were camped when Commander Farragut with his fleet came up from below and Grant ran by Vicksburg with his gun boats and transports. While at this point, the dummy gun boat was floated by the Vicksburg batteries, and caused the Confederates to blow up the fine iron clad Indianola, which they had captured from us in Davis Bend.

In April our camp was moved up to the Crane plantation above Young’s Point. On May 2nd we broke camp, and marched by way of Milliken’s Bend and Richmond to Hard Times Landing, Louisiana, where we took boat and were ferried across the river and landed at Grand Gulf, Miss., on May 6th. We marched by way of Raymond to Jackson, Miss., reaching there on May 14th. We lay at Jackson the 15th, tearing up the railroad. We left Jackson on the morning of the 16th; got to Messenger’s Ferry on Big Black River on the evening of the 17th. Company F was detailed to help wagon train across the pontoon bridge and we were up all night.

Big Black River
Union Pontoon Bridge Over the Big Black River (www.erdc.usace.army.mil)

On the morning of May 18th we took the march for Vicksburg, coming in on the Graveyard Road, and came in touch of the enemy in the afternoon at what is now Will Kleinman’s place. We took position on the 19th, on north side of Mint Springs Bayou, and lost 7 men wounded. On the night of the 19th we crossed over to the south side of the Bayou and made lodgement under the hills below the Confederate main line. This position we held until the surrender, digging up a little closer every night so that when the place was surrendered July 4th, we had approached within a few yards of their works.

Civil War Trust Map
The 30th Iowa Infantry was in Brigadier General John M. Thayer’s brigade during the siege of Vicksburg, stationed on the northern end of the Union line. (Civil War Trust)

On the morning of May 20th my company had a brisk skirmish beginning about daylight. Early in the afternoon our ammunition gave out. Lieut. Ph. Bence called for volunteers to go back to the rear to get a new supply of ammunition; no one seemed anxious for the job, and I volunteered to go and get a supply. I immediately started and of course was a mark for the Confederate sharpshooters for some distance until I reached a point of safety inside our lines. Securing a supply of 1000 rounds, two young soldiers volunteered to return with me a part of the distance, but it was left for me to carry the box to the front when we reached the point where we came under fire. On May 21st I had a similar experience, again volunteering, and going after and bringing back a supply of ammunition, and was the target for many Confederate rifles.

[Editor’s Note: Philip H. Bence was first lieutenant of Company F, 30th Iowa

P.H. Bence
Philip H. Bence was murdered by Confederate Guerrilla Jim Jackson in October 1864 (Ames Daily Tribune, February 18, 1935)

Infantry, during the siege of Vicksburg. He was later promoted to captain and commanded Company F until he was wounded during the Atlanta Campaign. While home on leave in Iowa he was killed by guerrillas, October 12, 1864 – Findagrave.com listing for Philip H. Bence]

On the 22nd of May our whole regiment was on the firing line, and several other regiments were ordered to our support. After McClernand’s assault on the R.R. redoubt, he urged Gen. Grant to order an assault on other portions of the line. In the afternoon several of the regiments along our portion of the line were ordered to assault, which they did with great gallantry but suffered a bloody repulse. Then my regiment, the 30th Iowa, and others were ordered to charge. Just at this moment, our Colonel, Abbott, arose to give orders for the advance, when he was shot through the head and instantly killed, then the Lieutenant-Colonel being absent, the command of the 30th regiment devolved on the Major, J.P. Milliken. He had proceeded only a few steps when he was shot through the body and mortally wounded, dying the next day. There being no field officers the several companies advanced to the charge, and got very near the Confederate works, but were unable to go over them. The assault was repulsed; our regiment suffering a loss according to official records, of 15 killed, 34 wounded, and 1 missing. The missing man was never definitely accounted for.

Charles H. Abbott grave
Grave of Colonel Charles H. Abbott – he commanded the 30th Iowa Infantry until his death at Vicksburg on May 22, 1863 (findagrave.com)

Our command was withdrawn during the night; and Grant’s army settled down to regular siege operations. The charge was made on Friday, May 22nd. We were unable to get our dead away from the places where they had fallen in front of the Confederate breastworks, and their bodies began to putrify. On the following Sunday afternoon May 24th under a flag of truce details from the various commands were sent to remove our dead. I was in the detail for this sorrowful and disagreeable work. Among the bodies we found was that of Ambrose Brumby, which was laying against the Confederate works; and I have thought that he was the man who was reported missing, and who should have been reported among the killed. We brought the dead bodies, which were in bad state of decomposition, to a point within our lines under a hill on Mint Spring Bayou, where a trench was dug, the bodies hastily thrown in, and covered over with earth.

Modern Photo of Mint Springs Bayou in Vicksburg (National Park Service)

Our command continued siege operations, and dug a sap approach running in zig-zag shape so that Confederate bullets could not reach us. At the time of the surrender, we had approached within a few yards of the Confederate breastworks; the supposition being that the Union army would make a general assault on the 4th of July; a number of other Federal commands having made similar approaches. 

After the assault on the 22d of May our command also dug a tunnel through the hill back of

Tunnel dug by General Thayer’s men so that they could move to the rear without exposing themselves to Confederate fire (National Park Service)

our position on the firing line, so that our soldiers could go to our camp in the rear and return without danger. But for the tunnel we would have been exposed to fire. That tunnel caved in after the war, but has been restored to its wartime shape, by the National Park Commission.

From the 22d of May until the surrender, our command was on duty on the firing line every other day. On the night of the 4th of July our command was ordered towards the Big Black River to meet Gen. Joe Johnston’s army which was expected to make an attack on Grant’s forces with the intention of relieving Pemberton, and not believing that Pemberton would surrender. Our command followed Johnston to Jackson and Brandon; then returned to Camp Sherman near Bovina where we remained until September. Then we were ordered to the relief of Rosecrans at Chattanooga and passed through Vicksburg, Memphis, Corinth, etc., and finally reached Chattanooga where we were temporarily assigned to Hooker’s Corps. 

We participated in the battle of Lookout Mountain (termed the battle above the clouds); and also Missionary Ridge; and afterwards at Ringgold, Georgia, which was a very hot fight. The following year, I took part in the battles of Resaca, New Hope Church, Kennesaw Mountain (another severe fight), and the battle of Atlanta on July 22d; Ezra Chapel on July 28th; Jonesboro, Lovejoy, etc.

Afterwards, our command was with Gen. Sherman in his famous “march to the sea.” Then were were in the Carolina campaign, the 30th Iowa leading the advance into Columbia, S.C. Our last fight was at Bentonville, N.C. Soon afterwards Joe Johnston surrendered, and the war was over. [We] marched to Washington City via Petersburg, Richmond, Fredericksburg, and Mount Vernon.

On May 24, 1865, our command took part in the grand review of Union veterans at Washington, which was one of the most notable events [in] history. Shortly after we were mustered out; and our regiment was [sent] to Davenport, Iowa, where we [were] paid off, discharged and returned to our homes. 

Grand Review 2
Union soldiers marching down Pennsylvania Avenue in Washington, D.C., during the Grand Review (Library of Congress)

In the fall of 1870, I went to Madison Parish, La., and in 1872 located [to] Vicksburg. I was married in Vicksburg, in 1876 (captured by a Vicksburg lady) and have resided here [ever] since.

After moving to Vicksburg, William H. Bleything married Louisa Bohannon, and the former soldier made his living as a carpenter. In 1887 Bleything was involved with the construction of the S.P. Metzger residence at the corner of South and Adams street, and a local newspaper noted:

The interior of the building far surpasses the handsome exterior; for here was afforded the opportunity for Mr. Bleything’s display of skillful joiner work, and the architect’s taste in the use of varied woods. The hall floor is laid in alternating strips of walnut and ash, the wainscoting, door and window-frames are of hard wood finish, while the staircase is a marvel of skillful carpenter work…Curphey and Mundy had the contract for the house, and to them and their efficient foreman Mr. Bleything, and the other gentlemen we have mentioned, and to the liberality of the owner, the community is indebted for a structure which is so creditable to the city. (Vicksburg Evening Post, December 1, 1887).

Advertisement for William H. Bleything’s Employer, the firm of Curphey & Mundy in Vicksburg (The Vicksburg Herald, September 17, 1908).

Although he lived in Vicksburg, Bleything kept in close contact with his relatives and former comrades-in-arms in Iowa. In 1892, the Vicksburg newspaper made note of a trip that Bleything took to Iowa:

Mr. W.H. Bleything, left this morning for Keokuk, Iowa, and will remain in that state, his old home, a month or more. During his stay in Iowa, Mr. Bleything will attend the reunion of his old regiment (the 30th Iowa) at Fairfield some time in August. He carried with him from this city, two gavels made from an oak tree which grew on the ridge near Vicksburg, one which the regiment charged on the 22d of May 1863, and which was afterward occupied by the Regiment. These reminders of a historical event, will no doubt be greatly appreciated by Mr. Bleything’s old comrades. 

Mr. Bleything has been a resident of Vicksburg for many years, and his home and fortunes are cast with our people. The old soldiers, Union or Confederate, make good citizens wherever they live, and we only wish the North would send us down a great many more veterans like Mr. Bleything. (Vicksburg Evening Post, July 20, 1892).

After returning to Vicksburg in September, the Post informed readers of what Mr. Bleything had done on his trip to Iowa:

Mr. Bleything attended a re-union of his old Regiment at Drakesville, Davis County, Iowa,

30th Iowa Flag
National Colors Carried by the 30th Iowa Infantry (State Historical Society of Iowa)

on the 14th and 15th days of this month, where he was warmly greeted by his old comrades. Sixteen of his company were present at the Re-union, and 108 members of the Regiment. Their old battle-flags were again unfurled to the breeze and the veterans lived over again the exciting times and scenes of over a quarter of a century ago. 

Mr. Bleything took with him a piece of oak that grew on the battle-fields near Vicksburg, had it made into a gavel, and presented it to the Regiment. It was used by the presiding officer during the Re-union. He also carried along a lot of bullets that were dug from the fortifications, and gave one of them to each member of the old regiment.

Mr. Bleything had a splendid time among his old friends, associates and comrades. He was greatly improved by his rest and recreation, and the invigorating atmosphere of the Northwest. He will now resume his old place with Curphey & Mundy, and assist in building more of the elegant houses in Vicksburg for which that firm is famous. (Vicksburg Evening Post, September 21, 1892).

In addition to building houses, William Bleything’s company also did work in the Vicksburg National Military Park; in 1905 a local paper noted:

The field work is still in progress with such men as W. H. Bleything, W.A. Claver and F.H.

Pennsylvania Monument
The Pennsylvania Monument at Vicksburg was dedicated on March 24, 1906 (National Park Service).

Foote in charge. Mr. Bleything has been doing concrete guttering all summer and is now ready to take his forces to the Pennsylvania site whenever it becomes time to lay the foundation for that state’s memorial. The stone is now on its way, with some on the ground now but it is not likely that the contractor will be on hand until frost is pretty well developed. (The Vicksburg Herald, September 30, 1905).

Sometime between 1905 and 1908, Bleything went from working in the National Park to working for the Vicksburg National Military Park. A brief article in a Vicksburg newspaper in 1908 noted:

By request of the chairman, Park Employees Frank H. Foote, W.H. Bleything, W.A. Claver and L.C. Swett have been appointed deputy sheriffs, authorized to keep the peace and to make arrests within the park lines. (The Vicksburg Herald, May 24, 1908).

It must have been a rewarding experience for Bleything, working on the battlefield where he had fought as a youth and helping to keep the memories alive of what he and his comrades had done there. He was especially keen to make sure the men of his regiment, the 30th Iowa, were properly remembered at Vicksburg. In 1909 Bleything made a trip to Iowa, and one of the goals of the trip was to garner support for building a monument at Vicksburg to Charles H. Abbott, the gallant colonel of the 30th Iowa. The Vicksburg paper said of this trip:

Mr. Bleything expects to be absent about two weeks, and while away will go to Keokuk, Iowa, where the widow and family of Col. Chas. H. Abbott are now living. Col. Abbott was killed here during the siege. Mr. Bleything is desirous that a statue of Colonel Abbott be placed in the National Military Park, and he will try and interest the Abbott family in the matter. Failing in this, Mr. Bleything will bring the matter before the Iowa veterans, and it is possible a popular subscription will be taken up to raise funds for the erection of the statue. (Vicksburg Evening Post, September 10, 1909).

Bleything must not have had much luck in his fundraising efforts, as a statue of Colonel Abbott was never built. He is not entirely forgotten however; the monument to Thayer’s brigade at Vicksburg does mention the gallant colonel’s sacrifice.

Iowa Brigade Monument Vicksburg
Monument to Thayer’s brigade in the Vicksburg National Military Park (iowacivilwarmonuments.com)

In the fall of 1909, the citizens of Vicksburg were thrilled to learn that the President of the United States, William Howard Taft, planned to visit their city and tour the National Military Park. Selected to be the president’s guide through the park was none other than William H. Bleything. A few weeks after the president’s visit, Bleything received a warm letter from Beryl F. Carroll, governor of Iowa, who had accompanied Taft on his trip. The Vicksburg paper reported the letter thus:

State of Iowa

Executive Department

Des Moines, Nov. 5, 1909

My Dear Bleything – I want to take this opportunity to express to you my very high appreciation of the courtesy shown me by you while at Vicksburg. You were able to show

Beryl F. Carroll was the 20th Governor of Iowa, serving from 1909 – 1913 (wikipedia)

me in the short time I was there more than I could have otherwise have seen in many hours.

The nation ought to be proud of its Vicksburg Park. It is one of the grandest places on the continent and very interesting indeed, as well as instructive. I hope that it will not be long until our monument there will be entirely completed. I heard it very  highly spoken of by many persons who were with us on our trip down the river. They seemed to regard it as one of the best monuments in the Park.

With personal regards, I remain,

Very truly yours,

B.F. Carroll

Governor of Iowa

(Vicksburg Evening Post, November 13, 1909)

Just two years after William H. Bleything guided the President of the United States through the Vicksburg National Military Park, the local newspaper announced with a bold headline the death of the Iowa veteran: “Brave Old Soldier Crosses Dark River.” The obituary went on to say of Bleything:

When a youth he had enlisted in Company F, the 30th Iowa Infantry, and served through

Bleything Grave
Grave of William H. Bleything in Cedar Hill Cemetery, Vicksburg, Mississippi (findagrave.com).

the war with signal honor. He participated in the siege of Vicksburg, and the war-time experiences were always a favorite topic with Mr. Bleything…Mr. Bleything, for several years past, has been in charge of a force of workmen engaged in improving the Vicksburg National Military Park. Capt. W.T. Rigby, President of the Commission, says, on behalf of the Commission, that Mr. Bleything was not only very efficient but he was as faithful as it was possible for any man to be, and that he was devoted to and took heartfelt interest in the Park and the work that devolved upon him.

(Vicksburg Evening Post, March 21, 1911)

I really admire William H. Bleything; he fought for a cause he believed in, and after the war was over, he settled among his former enemies and made a good life for himself. He literally helped to build the Vicksburg National Military Park, and guided everyone from governors to the President of the United States through it. The next time I am in Vicksburg, I plan to talk a walk through Cedar Hill Cemetery and put some flowers on the grave of William H. Bleything; he certainly deserves them.

“Whose Mother’s Son Will Need Help:” A Civil War Veteran Supports the Doughboys of World War 1

November 11, 2018, will mark the 100th anniversary of the end of “The War to End All

Frank W. Buckles
Corporal Frank Buckles, the last surviving American veteran of World War 1 (Findagrave.com)

Wars,” better known today because of subsequent events as World War 1. A Century may seem like a long time, but it’s really no so long ago; in fact, the last American veteran of World War 1, Frank Buckles, only passed away in 2011.

When the United States entered World War 1 in 1917, the Civil War was only some 50-odd years in the past, and there were still a number of surviving Union and Confederate veterans that took great interest in this new conflict. While doing some research recently I found an article about a rally held in Rankin County to encourage local support for the American Red Cross. One of the highlights of this rally was the reading of a speech by Pleasant B. Berry, a Confederate veteran who knew from his own military service the pressing need that soldiers had for high quality medical care. The speech was reported in The Brandon News, December 27, 1917, and is below:

The following was written by Capt. P.B. Berry of Florence, and read for him by Mrs. D. Taylor at the Red Cross rally in Florence last Sunday afternoon. It aroused much attention

Pleasant B. Berry
Wartime photograph of Pleasant B. Berry (Findagrave.com)


and interest and should be published for the benefit of the many in Rankin County who were not present. Capt. Berry is now an old Confederate Veteran and he should be heeded at this time:

“With the experience I have had and what I have been an eye-witness to, I just don’t know how to begin to tell the great need of an organization of the Red Cross, the good it can do in so many different ways on the battle-field, – yes, and on the firing line. Red Cross details are expected to be on the firing line to help take care of the wounded – binding up wounds and administering nourishments, & etc.

Then, in the hospital they can do so much good in caring for the sick. I have been in battle, I have gone over the battle-fields after the battle had been fought, and it makes me shudder until this day, to see so many lying all over the battle-ground, begging for help and begging for water – yes, pleading in so many ways for help. Then we had no Red Cross organization and our poor boys had to lie there and suffer awful pains; and many of them lay there and died for the want of Red Cross nurses.

Confederate dead at Fredericksburg
Dead Mississippians behind the stone wall at Fredericksburg, May 1863 (National Park Service)

Now, it’s in the hands of everybody to do their bit. I cannot help believing that everybody who has any patriotism about them will join and help out the Red Cross organization. None of us know whose son, or husband or friend may be in great need of the Red Cross before this cruel war is over. No telling what is going to come to pass. War is a fearful thing; and I, for one, think its high time we were pushing the Red Cross to the greatest height. Nothing like preparedness, be ready to do something when help is needed. No doubt in my mind but much help will be needed before this war is over, and how in the name of common sense can anybody with any kind [of] patriotism stand idle and not try to help our men on the battlefields in their terrible sufferings.

Now, I beg of all to get busy and do something. These men have gone across the water to

Red Cross Poster 3
Red Cross Poster Encouraging Civilians to Volunteer (Library of Congress)

fight for us and risk their lives and be exposed to all kinds of danger, while we are at home enjoying ourselves. I was a soldier once for four of the longest years I ever experienced, and I know what I am talking about. Then, we had no Red Cross organization because we were not able to have one. Many lives could have been saved if we could have had their assistance. I could go on and tell much more of my experience in battles, and my seeing, the suffering on the battlefields and in hospitals, etc., but I feel that it is no use to say more, only let me beg of you all to do your bit and help take care of the men that have already gone and those that will be sure to follow very soon. No telling whose Mother’s son will need help and need it bad. I fear but few of our people are realizing the seriousness of this terrible world’s war.

Now it occurs to me to ask what can be done to get the people more interested and brought down to more earnest thinking. As for myself I have had very serious thoughts about this war from the first; and no telling when it will end, nor how many more men may be called on to go. So, I think it’s the duty of everybody to join the Red Cross and do their bit.”

Pleasant Berry’s speech struck a cord, with me, as my grandfather, Lynnly C. Adams, was

Lynnly C. Adams
Photo of the author’s grandfather, Fireman 3rd Class Lynnly C. Adams, taken in 1917 (Author’s Collection)

from Rankin County, and served in the United States Navy during World War 1. Lynnly was a victim of the deadly 1918 influenza epidemic that killed millions worldwide, and spent time in a naval hospital at Brest, France. According to a story that was passed down to me by my mother, Lynnly was not expected to live, and the doctors at the hospital had him placed outside the building in a tent with other sailors who were not expected to live. There was one nurse, however, who refused to give up on these men and she took care of my grandfather until he recovered from his illness.

Pleasant Boggan Berry enlisted in the “Rankin Greys,” Company I, 6th Mississippi Infantry, in 1861, and the unit was mustered into service on May 4 of that year. Over the next four years the young soldier took part in numerous major battles, and saw more than his fair share of wounded, sick, and dying men. In the 6th Mississippi’s first major battle at Shiloh, Tennessee, the regiment had over 300 men killed or wounded out of the 425 it had taken into the fight. The casualty rate for the 6th Mississippi at Shiloh was 70% – the highest percentage of any Magnolia State unit for the entire war. The regiment had duly won the nickname it carried until the end of the war: “The Bloody Sixth.” (Going to Meet the Yankees: A History of the ‘Bloody Sixth’ Mississippi Infantry, C.S.A., page 98.)

Veterans such as Pleasant Berry knew firsthand how terrible war was, and they worked very hard in their communities to make sure that the “Doughboys” had access to the best medical care available. The United Confederate Veterans and United Daughters of the Confederacy supported organizations such as the American Red Cross, which provided medical care to United States soldiers both at home and abroad. I found the following description of their activities on the American Red Cross website:

Prior to the First World War, the Red Cross introduced its first aid, water safety, and public

CV Vol. 25, Page 378
The Louisiana Division of the United Daughters of the Confederacy established a “War Relief Camp” to aid United States Soldiers. (Confederate Veteran Magazine, Volume 25, page 378.

health nursing programs. With the outbreak of war, the organization experienced phenomenal growth. The number of local chapters jumped from 107 in 1914 to 3,864 in 1918 and membership grew from 17,000 to over 20 million adult and 11 million junior Red Cross members. The public contributed $400 million in funds and material to support Red Cross programs, including those for American and allied forces and civilian refugees. The Red Cross staffed hospitals and ambulance companies and recruited 20,000 registered nurses to serve the military. Additional Red Cross nurses came forward to combat the worldwide influenza epidemic of 1918. (http://www.redcross.org/local/florida/south-

Thanks to the advances in medical knowledge and the work of groups such as the Red Cross, World War 1 casualties had a much better chance of surviving than their Civil War

Byhalia Miss. Red Cross 1919 - LOC
African-American Red Cross Volunteers at Byhalia, Mississippi, in 1919. (Library of Congress)

counterparts. In World War 1, there was one death for every 40 soldiers who served; in the Civil War there was one death for every five soldiers. (“American War Dead, by the Numbers” by Paul Waldman – http://prospect.org/article/american-war-dead-numbers)

Because of civilians such as Pleasant Berry who wanted the men fighting in the Great War to have the very best medical care, thousands of soldiers, sailors and marines survived the conflict that might otherwise have died. One of those sailors was my grandfather, who came home to marry my grandmother and have nine children, one of whom was my mother, Lois Anice Adams, born September 1, 1930. We owe these Mississippians who gave of their time and money to support the troops our gratitude, and I am very glad I can highlight their efforts in this blog.

“It Seems We are To Live To See All Our Children Buried:” A Tale of Two Civil War Letters

Working at the Mississippi Department of Archives and History affords me the opportunity to search through many obscure collections for interesting material. I found the following letter in a grouping that was simply labeled, “Miscellaneous Manuscripts Collection:”

A Letter to Mrs. Chester Rockwell from her Nephew:

E.V.M. Lee

Comp. A, 12th Miss. Regt.

Camp Near Orange Court House, Va.

Jan. 6th/64

My Dear Aunt Carrie,

I have written to you twice or three times since I was at your house and enjoyed myself

Civil War Map of the town of Orange Court House, Virginia (www.censusfinder.com/mapvirginia.htm)

so well with you and Uncle Rockwell but have never received a letter from you up to this time and I now write you again and hope to hear from you soon.

Aunt, it was a great shock to me when I heard of poor Aunt Hellen and Cousin Sue Lee’s death, for I loved Aunt Hellen like a mother, and Cousin Sue like a sister, but the great giver of all things giveth and taketh away and believing that they were both Christians I willingly give them up believing that they have been transferred from this wicked and troublesome world to that better world on high where peace and happiness reign forever. Aunt, it is a great consolation for us to know we are ready and prepared to go when called upon to depart this life. We all ought to try and be prepared for that great day though I fear there are a great many who are not prepared and I fear never will be and awfull will be the consequences.

Well Aunt, I heard from home some time ago and they were all well and doing very well. They said they had not been visited by the Yankees in some time and I hope and pray that they may never be visited again by the unprincipled wretches for I know it is any thing else than pleasant to have the ruthless invaders around them. Father, mother,

Emory Lee asked his aunt to send him food via the “Miss. Depot.” The depot was established in 1861 to aid Mississippians in the Army of Northern Virginia (Richmond Dispatch, September 19, 1861)

sisters, and brothers requested me when I wrote to you to remember them to you and Uncle Rockwell. Aunt and Uncle, we are only getting a quarter of a pound of meat now and I nearly starve and if you can send me a couple of sides of bacon and some beans you will oblige me very much indeed and if you do direct to me in care of J.J. Hood, agent of the Miss. Depot and send it by express.

Well, I must close, so give my love to Uncle and the children, also to all my relatives and except a large portion for yourself so good bye untill next time and I remain your affectionate Nephew, Emory V.M. Lee.


Aunt write soon and let me hear from you and you must select me a nice young lady for a sweetheart and write me who she is and oblige your nephew,

Emory Vincent Murphy Lee.

Emory Lee was the son of  James C. and Maria W. Lee, natives of North Carolina that moved to Mississippi in the 1830’s. The Lee family prospered in their new home, and on the 1860 U.S. Census for Utica, Hinds County, James valued his real estate holdings at $5,870, and his personal estate at $16,570. In addition to Emory, James and Maria had sons Henderson, Bailey, and Daniel, and daughters Susan and Mary. (1850 U.S. Census, Hinds County, Mississippi)

It took a good bit of research, but I believe that I have identified the recipient of Emory Lee’s letter – “Dear Aunt Carrie.” I looked for a Chester Rockwell in Mississippi, but didn’t find any likely candidates living in the state before the Civil War. Then I decided to try looking in North Carolina, the birth state of both James and Maria Lee. I very quickly found a match for the limited information that I had: Chester Rockwell, age 59, and his

James C. Lee Grave
Grave of James C. Lee, Emory Lee’s Father (Findagrave.com)

wife Caroline, age 42, living in Columbus, North Carolina, in the 1860 U.S. Census. I also found that Caroline’s maiden name was Yates, and Emory’s father, James C. Lee, is buried in the Daniel Yates Family Cemetery in Utica, Mississippi. (U.S. and International Marriage Records, 1560 to 1900, Ancestry.com, and the listing for James C. Lee on Findagrave.com)

Emory Lee enlisted in the “Raymond Fencibles,” Company A, 12th Mississippi Infantry, in April 1861. He showed up as “Present” on all of his company’s muster rolls, except for one 30 day furlough he received on April 12, 1863, and the last muster roll card, which simply reads, “Killed May 24, 1864.” This was the end of Lee’s service record, but fortunately in our “Miscellaneous Manuscripts,” there was a transcript of a second letter, written to Emory’s Aunt by his mother, which gives much more detail about his death:

A Letter to Mrs. Chester Rockwell from her Sister:

Utica (Mississippi) July 22, 1864

Dear Sister,

It becomes my painfull duty to inform you of the death of my son Emory. He was killed on

Muster Roll Card of Emory Lee Stating he was killed on May 24, 1864 (Fold3.com)

the twenty-fourth of May in Virginia. He was standing picket at night. The ball passed through the main artery of the thigh, and he bled to death. No one saw him fall, no one was near to sooth his dying hours. He crawled over a hundred yards after he was wounded, when found life was extinct. I sometimes think it is impossible for me to bear it. Then again, I think I have not long to live, and I will soon meet him in a brighter and happier world.

He was a good and affectionate boy to me. He was a favorite with all. He thought so much of you all, often spoke of you in his letters. He professed religion before his death. He died a Christian, Oh blessed consolation. We will never meet him here on earth again, but let us live so my Sister that when we are called to die we may meet him in that Spirit Land where death is unknown. I have only two sons left, one is in the army, the other is too small yet. I heard from Betsy Lee a few weeks since, she has but one son in the army. He was captured a short time after he joined and she has never heard from him since. Daniel Yates has three sons in the service, one in Georgia, one in Mississippi, and one in Virginia. He had one killed at Vicksburg – Alex Yates. It seems that we are to live to see all our children buried. Friend after friend departs, star by star declines untill all have passed away. Poor Em wrote me that his Aunt Helen was dead, poor thing, she lost all of her sons but one, and then was called to meet them.

The Yankees made a raid out here last week, they did not get to our house. We have very good crops, but I am afraid they will take them from us as soon as we gather them. I pray that this cruel war may end though my poor child is gone, I feel for the rest. All send love to you and all the relatives. I feel that we will never meet on this earth again, but may we meet in heaven is my prayer. Pray for me, that I may bear the loss of my dear child with fortitude.


Your Sister,

Winnie M. Lee

Reading Mary Lee’s letter touched me, as I could feel her anguish at losing a son in the war. She didn’t even have the consolation that he had died in a major battle defending his home and kinfolk – Emory Lee had died in a minor skirmish, nothing more. Military History of Mississippi only gives one line to the fight saying that the 12th Mississippi “fought on the North Anna May 24.” (Military History of Mississippi 1803 – 1898, page 64).

North Anna River
View of Quarles Mill on the North Anna River, taken by Timothy Sullivan, May 23, 1864 (Library of Congress)


I wish I had more information about Emory Lee and his family, but all I had to work with were the two letters listed above; they weren’t even the original letters, just transcripts. There is no telling where the original letters are, or if they even exist; I’m just glad someone went to the trouble to send those copies to the archive; otherwise Emory Lee would be just another statistic of the war, and not the beloved son of Mary Lee, who grieved for her lost son.

The Emory Lee letters are located in the Miscellaneous Manuscripts Collection, Z/1600.000/S, Box 3, Folder 31, MDAH.